North Africa: A History from Antiquity to the Present

By Phillip C. Naylor

North Africa has been an essential crossroads all through historical past, serving as a connection among Africa, Asia, and Europe. satirically, in spite of the fact that, the region's ancient importance has been chronically under-estimated. In a publication which could lead students to re-imagine the concept that of Western civilization, incorporating the function North African peoples performed in shaping "the West," Phillip Naylor describes a locale whose trans-cultural background serves as a vital hinge, politically, economically, and socially. perfect for beginners and experts alike, North Africa starts with an acknowledgment that defining this zone has awarded demanding situations all through historical past. Naylor's survey encompasses the Paleolithic interval and early Egyptian cultures, top readers in the course of the Pharonic dynasties, the conflicts with Rome and Carthage, the increase of Islam, the expansion of the Ottoman Empire, ecu incursions, and the postcolonial customers for Egypt, Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco, and Western Sahara. Emphasizing the significance of encounters and interactions between civilizations, North Africa maps a fashionable destiny for scholarship approximately this pivotal region.

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"Naylor's method is cutting edge, his study thorough and balanced and most significantly, he indicates a superb empathy for the peoples and cultures of the zone whose historical past is still little understood within the usa. this can be a paintings of remarkable perception that merits the widest stream possible."
-John Entelis, Professor of Political technology and Director, heart East experiences application, Fordham University

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The Umayyad Dynasty (661–750) and Arab growth into the Maghrib Mu‘awiya succeeded Ali and tested a hereditary monarchy often called the Umayyad Caliphate. Arabs ruled the caliphate, even if prior directors, who had served the Byzantines or the Sasanids, frequently retained their positions. certainly, outstanding toleration towards different religions, even though now not towards diversified ethnic teams, distinctive Umayyad conquest and executive. eleven An fiscal attention additionally tempered proselytism. Non-Muslims paid the jizya, a head tax; conversion reduce into sales. however, Arabs discriminated opposed to non-Arabs, no matter if they switched over NORTH AFRICA in the course of the EARLY ISLAMIC interval A L- A A ND LU CORSICA S Rome Constantinople SARDINIA Cordoba Gades Tunis Constantine Qayrawan Fez B S S CYPRUS Mediterranean Sea JERBA Damascus Alexandria A H 250 Miles 500 Km A 500 Miles a thousand Km North Africa throughout the Early Islamic interval R A one thousand Miles Fustat le zero ER CRETE Ni zero B ER MALTA crimson Sea 6 four |||   n o r t h a f r i c a to Islam. Non-Arab converts, often called mawali, resented this paradoxical prejudice. Amr ibn al-‘As, the conqueror and governor of Egypt, fastened incursions into Cyrenaica, yet his nephew, Uqba bn Nafi, specially individual himself in North Africa west of Egypt. even supposing Arabs had raided the Maghrib starting within the 640s, Uqba’s campaigns aimed to set up an everlasting presence. In 669, he took over Tripolitania and based Qayrawan in Tunisia in 670. This urban may function the headquarters for Arab westward enlargement. He penetrated the inner of Algeria, yet he didn't own the assets to safe it. He additionally entered Fezzan. in line with inconclusive facts and interpretation, Uqba additionally led an ex- traordinary excursion westward, seemingly attaining the Atlantic Ocean. Ibn Idhari’s 13th century chronicle portrays Uqba as a Muslim hero deeply dedicated to the unfold of Islam. Apocryphal or no longer, Ibn Idhari’s chronicle presents nice drama in its description of the Uqba’s intrepid epic: “He rode till he reached the sea; and he entered it, till the water reached the abdominal of his horse; and thereupon he lifted his hand to the heavens and stated: ‘Oh Lord! If it weren't for the ocean combating me, i'd have complicated [on land] on a course like that of the two-horned [Alexander the Great], protecting your religion, battling those that disbelieve in you! ’ ” (Ibn Idhari 1948–1951, 1:27). Jamil M. Abun-Nasr contended that Uqba attained the Sus in southern Morocco (AbunNasr 1987, 30). 12 Charles-André Julien contended that he can have long past so far as important Algeria (Julien 1970, 9–10). what's definite is that Uqba embodied Arab and Muslim conquest and growth westward and that his ambition alienated Berbers. He displayed a religious yet prejudiced character, particularly towards the mawali, who believed within the ideas of Muslim equality and anticipated it. Kusayla, a favourite Berber chief and convert, despised Uqba’s discrimination.

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