Greater than 40 years in the past it was once proven that the African continent could be divided into 4 designated language households. learn on African languages has for this reason been preoccupied with reconstructing and knowing similarities throughout those households. This has intended that an curiosity in other forms of linguistic courting, similar to no matter if structural similarities and dissimilarities between African languages are the results of touch among those languages, hasn't ever been the topic of significant examine. This publication exhibits that such similarities throughout African languages are extra universal than is generally believed. It offers a vast standpoint on Africa as a linguistic sector, in addition to an research of particular linguistic areas. so one can have a greater knowing of African languages, their constructions, and their historical past, additional info on those contact-induced relationships is key to figuring out Africa's linguistic geography, and to reconstructing its heritage and prehistory.
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Extra resources for A Linguistic Geography of Africa (Cambridge Approaches to Language Contact)
A separate focus is located within the Nyanja (Bantu N30) and Shona (Bantu S10) language teams spoken in Malawi, Zimbabwe, and adjoining components of Botswana and Mozambique. outdoor Africa, labial flaps were said in basic terms in a single language, Sika, an Austronesian language of Indonesia. Labial flaps will not be commonly disbursed around the Sudanic belt. In spite in their targeted distribution, universal inheritance from a unmarried proto-language may be governed out. Olson and Hajek (2003) recommend that they forty two G. N. Clements and Annie Rialland desk three. 2 Frequencies of 4 forms of labial-velar stops within the African database (total languages with labial-velar stops � fifty five) quantity percentage of overall gb fifty four ninety eight. 2 kp fifty four ninety eight. 2 Ngb thirteen 23. 6 ˛m 7 12. 7 may need arisen in Adamawa-Ubangi languages of Cameroon and unfold from there into the japanese automobile and Sudan, from whence they might have been borrowed by means of imperative Sudanic languages. How those sounds arose within the first position (i. e. through sound switch, in ideophones, only once or numerous occasions independently) remains to be doubtful. three. 2. four Labial-velar stops nearly both designated to Africa, and to the Sudanic belt particularly, are labial- velar stops. those are doubly articulated sounds produced with overlapping labial and velar closures (see Connell 1994 and Ladefoged & Maddieson 1996 for special phonetic descriptions). despite their complicated articulation, they represent unmarried phonemes, as is proven by means of a few diagnostics. For instance, they can't be break up by means of epenthesis, they're copied as unmarried devices in reduplication, and so they normally happen in syllable-initial place the place con- sonant clusters are usually not differently allowed. typically, labiovelar sounds, together with stops and the waft /w/, are inclined to development with labial instead of velar sounds in phonological structures (Ohala & Lorentz 1977). although, in homorganic nasal–stop sequences, it's the dorsal function that sometimes spreads to the previous nasal, yielding [˛mgb] or [˛gb]. 7 A fuller dialogue in their phonology are available in Cahill (1999). the most common labial-velar stops are a voiced oral cease /gb/, a unvoiced oral cease /kp/, a nasal cease /˛m/, and a prenasalized cease /Ngb/ often learned as [˛mgb] or [˛gb]. a number of of those sounds happen in fifty five of the a hundred and fifty African languages in our database (see desk three. 2). different kinds of labial-velar sounds are very infrequent in our facts, the main strange being the labial-velar trills said within the Bantu language Yaka C104 (Thomas 1991). because the numbers in desk three. 2 recommend, /kp/ and /gb/ frequently accompany one another in a method. This truth could seem strange, given the crosslinguistic tendency for voiced stops to be much less widespread than unvoiced stops. within the Sudanic belt, besides the fact that, this tendency doesn't carry; inside our pattern, basically four percentage of Sudanic languages lack voiced stops, and those are all Bantu Africa as a phonological zone forty three A10-20 imperative AFRICAN REPUBLIC A64 SUDAN A83 A53 C12a C13 C41 C41 CAMEROON A70 C37 C14 D33 C30 C45 D32 C41 C104 D21 C53 C54 D311 D22 D14 CONGO GABON DEMCOCRATIC D12 REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO D13 C34 Map three.